Blue-and-white porcelain, also known as white ground blue-and-white porcelain, is often referred to as blue-and-white, a treasure of the firing process of Chinese ceramics. It is one of the mainstream varieties of China's porcelains and belongs to the subglaze color porcelains.
Primitive blue-and-white porcelain appeared in Tang and Song Dynasty, while mature blue-and-white porcelain appeared in Hutian kiln in Jingdezhen of Yuan Dynasty. Blue and white became the mainstream of porcelain in the Ming Dynasty, and reached its peak in the Kangxi period of the Qing Dynasty. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, derivatives such as blue and white, peacock green glaze blue and white, bean green glaze blue and white, blue and red, yellow Di blue and blue and white were also created and burned.
On the basis of the Song Dynasty porcelains in China, which are mainly composed of celadon and white porcelain monochrome glaze, Yuan Qinghua has developed a new type of porcelains with blue glaze tone as the main tone and complex pattern, which has brand-new aesthetic standards and types of porcelains.
Yuan Dynasty blue and white greatly changed the implicit and introverted style of traditional porcelain, with distinct visual effects, giving people a concise pleasure, rich composition, multi-level but not disorderly, brushwork is more common, fluent and powerful, outline rendering is robust and calm. And with its magnificent atmosphere and artistic originality, it pushed the blue and white painting art to its peak and established the prosperity and long-term endurance of blue and white porcelain in later generations.
The blue and white porcelain of the Yuan Dynasty has its own unique shape. From the point of view of production technology, there appeared a huge body with heavy matrix, such as large cans, large bottles, large plates, large bowls and so on. But there are also elaborate works, such as tall bowls, cups, pans and so on. In a word, the shape of Yuan blue-and-white porcelain is both magnificent and magnificent, as well as beautiful and delicate small vessels. No matter what type of ware, it is graceful in shape and simple and dignified.
The blue and white patterns of the Yuan Dynasty are vivid. The theme decoration of Yuan Dynasty blue and white includes characters, animals, plants, poems, etc. Characters include Gaoshitu (Four Love Tu), historical figures, etc. Animals include dragons and phoenixes, unicorns, ducks, fish, etc. Plants are common peony, lotus, orchids, pine, bamboo, plum, Ganoderma lucidum, flower leaves, melons and fruits, and poems are rare.
The petals of the peony painted are mostly white-edged; the dragon pattern is small head, thin neck, long body, three or four claws, ridge on back and scale pattern are mostly grid-shaped. Strong and fierce. Auxiliary ornaments are mostly curly grass, lotus petals, ancient money, sea water, palindromes, duoyun, banana leaves and so on. The shape of lotus petals is like braces, and the lotus petals are often painted Taoist treasures; the ideal moires are often painted with sea eight monsters or broken branches, lotus flowers and twisted branches, and third-order clouds; the stem of banana leaves is solid; the seawater pattern is a combination of thick lines and thin lines. This pot is a typical sesame green material. The glaze color is three-thirds of the fetus. The glaze has tin light. The most important thing is that it has strong glaze color halo, which can not be imitated by modern high-tech.
The most common pattern is the Dragon pattern. The Blue Dragon depicted in the bottle rises in the clouds. The Romance of the Three Kingdoms says that "dragon can be big and small, and can rise and hide; the big can make clouds and smoke, the small can hide and hide; the rising can fly between the universe, and the hidden can hide in the waves." Fang Jinshen, Longcheng time-varying. The dragon is the symbol of the emperor, which means the power of ascending the peak to the utmost. Together, "Longteng" is also the symbol of auspiciousness. Despite its dense decorative layout, the bottle has a clear primary and secondary, and it has a serious and full feeling of the blue and white porcelain of the Yuan Dynasty.
Regarding the blue material, the blue and white porcelains of the Yuan Dynasty can be divided into two hues, one is grey-blue, lighter, and the other is dark blue and more gorgeous. In traditional concepts, the grey-blue color is made in China, the fetal bone is grey, the fetal body feels light; the blue-bright color is imported material, the fetal bone is white, slightly gray, the fetal bone feels heavy, compact and hard. Imported green materials are used for large, medium or small blue and white flowers, while domestic cobalt materials are only used for small and medium-sized appliances.
In addition to the body, glaze and blue and white materials, the firing process is also an important part of the ceramic manufacturing industry. The porcelain industry in Jingdezhen after the Yuan Dynasty was described by French missionaries who had been to Jingdezhen as "smoke in the daytime obscured the clouds, and kiln fires in the evening red the night sky".
Because of the precious value of Yuanqinghua, it is hard for ordinary people to see it, so it has always been considered as a counterfeit in antique circles. But as one Tibetan said, "It is true that Yuanqinghua has a small stock, but not only less than 400 pieces."
Xiaobian also agrees with this statement, as Chaiyao has not yet found the exact kiln site, but "Geguyao Lun-Guyao Lun" wrote: "Chaiyao came out of the north, azure, moistening fine lines, a lot of coarse loess, rare in recent times." Therefore, no one is sure that one of the firewood kilns said. Therefore, it is hard to convince people that there is no yuan blue and white among the people.
As one of the four ancient civilizations in the world, China has made many significant contributions to the progress and development of human society. Achievements in ceramic technology and art are of particular importance. In China, the production of ceramics can be traced back to 4500 BC to 2500 BC. It can be said that an important part of the development history of the Chinese nation is the history of ceramics.
China's blue-and-white porcelain, with its bright blue patterns, precious glaze water, delicate white earth and exquisite and exquisite shape, has become a model for future generations to imitate and collect a real blue-and-white porcelain, which is very rare.