记载历史的艺术品--元青花龙纹罐

x
用微信扫描二维码
分享至好友和朋友圈

  青花瓷又称白地青花瓷,常简称青花,中华陶瓷烧制工艺的珍品。是中国瓷器的主流品种之一,属釉下彩瓷。

  Blue-and-white porcelain, also known as white ground blue-and-white porcelain, is often referred to as blue-and-white, a treasure of the firing process of Chinese ceramics. It is one of the mainstream varieties of China's porcelains and belongs to the subglaze color porcelains.

  

  原始青花瓷于唐宋已见端倪,成熟的青花瓷则出现在元代景德镇的湖田窑。明代青花成为瓷器的主流,清康熙时发展到了顶峰。明清时期,还创烧了青花五彩、孔雀绿釉青花、豆青釉青花、青花红彩、黄地青花、哥釉青花等衍生品种。

  Primitive blue-and-white porcelain appeared in Tang and Song Dynasty, while mature blue-and-white porcelain appeared in Hutian kiln in Jingdezhen of Yuan Dynasty. Blue and white became the mainstream of porcelain in the Ming Dynasty, and reached its peak in the Kangxi period of the Qing Dynasty. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, derivatives such as blue and white, peacock green glaze blue and white, bean green glaze blue and white, blue and red, yellow Di blue and blue and white were also created and burned.

  元青花在以青瓷和白瓷单色釉为主流的中国宋瓷基础上,推陈出新地研制出以蓝色釉彩基调为主、繁纹叠彩构图形式呈现的瓷艺新品,具有全新的审美标准和瓷种类型。

  On the basis of the Song Dynasty porcelains in China, which are mainly composed of celadon and white porcelain monochrome glaze, Yuan Qinghua has developed a new type of porcelains with blue glaze tone as the main tone and complex pattern, which has brand-new aesthetic standards and types of porcelains.

  元青花大改传统瓷器含蓄内敛的风格,以鲜明的视觉效果,给人以简明的快感,构图丰满,层次多而不乱,笔法以一笔点划多见,流畅有力,勾勒渲染则粗壮沉着。并且以其大气豪迈的气概和艺术原创精神,将青花绘画艺术推向顶峰,确立了后世青花瓷的繁荣与长久不衰。

  Yuan Dynasty blue and white greatly changed the implicit and introverted style of traditional porcelain, with distinct visual effects, giving people a concise pleasure, rich composition, multi-level but not disorderly, brushwork is more common, fluent and powerful, outline rendering is robust and calm. And with its magnificent atmosphere and artistic originality, it pushed the blue and white painting art to its peak and established the prosperity and long-term endurance of blue and white porcelain in later generations.

  

  元青花瓷造型独具特色。从制作工艺上看,出现了胎体厚重的巨大形体,如大罐、大瓶、大盘、大碗等。但也有精细之作,如胎体轻薄的高足碗、高足杯、匜、盘等。总之元青花瓷器造型既有恢弘雄伟的大器,又有秀美灵巧的小器,不论何种器型均形态优美,古朴端庄。

  The blue and white porcelain of the Yuan Dynasty has its own unique shape. From the point of view of production technology, there appeared a huge body with heavy matrix, such as large cans, large bottles, large plates, large bowls and so on. But there are also elaborate works, such as tall bowls, cups, pans and so on. In a word, the shape of Yuan blue-and-white porcelain is both magnificent and magnificent, as well as beautiful and delicate small vessels. No matter what type of ware, it is graceful in shape and simple and dignified.

  元青花的图案惟妙惟肖。元青花主题纹饰的题材有人物、动物、植物、诗文等。人物有高士图(四爱图)、历史人物等;动物有龙凤、麒麟、鸳鸯、游鱼等;植物常见的有牡丹、莲花、兰花、松竹梅、灵芝、花叶、瓜果等;诗文极少见。

  The blue and white patterns of the Yuan Dynasty are vivid. The theme decoration of Yuan Dynasty blue and white includes characters, animals, plants, poems, etc. Characters include Gaoshitu (Four Love Tu), historical figures, etc. Animals include dragons and phoenixes, unicorns, ducks, fish, etc. Plants are common peony, lotus, orchids, pine, bamboo, plum, Ganoderma lucidum, flower leaves, melons and fruits, and poems are rare.

  所画牡丹的花瓣多留白边;龙纹为小头、细颈、长身、三爪或四爪、背部出脊、鳞纹多为网格状。矫健而凶猛。辅助纹饰多为卷草、莲瓣、古钱、海水、回纹、朵云、蕉叶等。莲瓣纹形状似“大括号”,莲瓣中常绘道家杂宝;如意云纹中常绘海八怪或折枝莲花、缠枝花卉,绘三阶云;蕉叶中梗为实心;海水纹为粗线与细线描绘相结合。此罐是典型的苏麻离青料,釉色入胎三分,釉面有锡光,最重要的是有浓重的釉色晕散,是现代高科技无法仿制。

  The petals of the peony painted are mostly white-edged; the dragon pattern is small head, thin neck, long body, three or four claws, ridge on back and scale pattern are mostly grid-shaped. Strong and fierce. Auxiliary ornaments are mostly curly grass, lotus petals, ancient money, sea water, palindromes, duoyun, banana leaves and so on. The shape of lotus petals is like braces, and the lotus petals are often painted Taoist treasures; the ideal moires are often painted with sea eight monsters or broken branches, lotus flowers and twisted branches, and third-order clouds; the stem of banana leaves is solid; the seawater pattern is a combination of thick lines and thin lines. This pot is a typical sesame green material. The glaze color is three-thirds of the fetus. The glaze has tin light. The most important thing is that it has strong glaze color halo, which can not be imitated by modern high-tech.

  最常见的是龙纹图案,瓶身描写的青龙在云中升腾而起。《三国演义》说“龙能大能小,能升能隐;大则兴云吐雾,小则隐介藏形;升则飞扬于宇宙之间,隐则埋伏于波澜以内。方今春深,龙乘时变。”龙是帝皇的标志,意指登峰造极的权力,一起“龙腾”也是祥瑞的标志。此瓶尽管纹饰布局繁密,可是主次清楚,很有元代青花瓷严肃、饱满之感。

  The most common pattern is the Dragon pattern. The Blue Dragon depicted in the bottle rises in the clouds. The Romance of the Three Kingdoms says that "dragon can be big and small, and can rise and hide; the big can make clouds and smoke, the small can hide and hide; the rising can fly between the universe, and the hidden can hide in the waves." Fang Jinshen, Longcheng time-varying. The dragon is the symbol of the emperor, which means the power of ascending the peak to the utmost. Together, "Longteng" is also the symbol of auspiciousness. Despite its dense decorative layout, the bottle has a clear primary and secondary, and it has a serious and full feeling of the blue and white porcelain of the Yuan Dynasty.

  

  关于青料方面,元青花瓷器总体分两种色调,一种呈灰蓝色,较浅淡,一种是深蓝色,较艳丽。传统概念中,呈色灰蓝者为国产料,胎骨灰白,胎体手感轻;呈蓝艳者为进口料,胎骨较白,稍含灰,手感沉重,致密坚硬。进口青料用于大型、中型或小型元青花上,国产钴料仅用于中、小型器。

  Regarding the blue material, the blue and white porcelains of the Yuan Dynasty can be divided into two hues, one is grey-blue, lighter, and the other is dark blue and more gorgeous. In traditional concepts, the grey-blue color is made in China, the fetal bone is grey, the fetal body feels light; the blue-bright color is imported material, the fetal bone is white, slightly gray, the fetal bone feels heavy, compact and hard. Imported green materials are used for large, medium or small blue and white flowers, while domestic cobalt materials are only used for small and medium-sized appliances.

  除了胎坯、釉色和青花料,烧造工艺也是瓷器制造业很重要的一环。景德镇元代以后的制瓷业就像来过景德镇的法国传教士形容的那样:“白天浓烟遮蔽了云彩,晚上窑火映红了夜空”。

  In addition to the body, glaze and blue and white materials, the firing process is also an important part of the ceramic manufacturing industry. The porcelain industry in Jingdezhen after the Yuan Dynasty was described by French missionaries who had been to Jingdezhen as "smoke in the daytime obscured the clouds, and kiln fires in the evening red the night sky".

  由于元青花珍稀贵重,寻常百姓难以得见其容,所以在古玩界也一直被认为民间元青花多为赝品,但正如一藏家所说:“元青花的存世量少这是事实,但不会仅仅只有不到400件。”

  Because of the precious value of Yuanqinghua, it is hard for ordinary people to see it, so it has always been considered as a counterfeit in antique circles. But as one Tibetan said, "It is true that Yuanqinghua has a small stock, but not only less than 400 pieces."

  小编也赞同这个说法,就如柴窑虽至今未发现确切窑址,但《格古要论·古窑器论》写道:“柴窑出北地,天青色,滋润细媚有细纹,足多粗黄土,近世少见。”因此也并无人肯定无柴窑之一说。故,民间无元青花之说实难令人信服。

  Xiaobian also agrees with this statement, as Chaiyao has not yet found the exact kiln site, but "Geguyao Lun-Guyao Lun" wrote: "Chaiyao came out of the north, azure, moistening fine lines, a lot of coarse loess, rare in recent times." Therefore, no one is sure that one of the firewood kilns said. Therefore, it is hard to convince people that there is no yuan blue and white among the people.

  中国是世界四大文明古国之一,对人类社会的进步与发展做出了许多重大贡献。在陶瓷技术与艺术上所取得的成就,尤其具有特殊重要意义。在中国,制陶技艺的产生可追溯到纪元前4500年至前2500年的时代,可以说,中华民族发展史中的一个重要组成部分是陶瓷发展史。

  As one of the four ancient civilizations in the world, China has made many significant contributions to the progress and development of human society. Achievements in ceramic technology and art are of particular importance. In China, the production of ceramics can be traced back to 4500 BC to 2500 BC. It can be said that an important part of the development history of the Chinese nation is the history of ceramics.

  而中国的青花瓷以湛蓝艳丽的图案、如玉似珍的釉水、细腻洁白的胎土和精美奇巧的造型,并以新瓷种类型的姿态成为后代模仿的典范,能收藏一件真正的青花瓷器,可真是可遇不可求。

  China's blue-and-white porcelain, with its bright blue patterns, precious glaze water, delicate white earth and exquisite and exquisite shape, has become a model for future generations to imitate and collect a real blue-and-white porcelain, which is very rare.

特别声明:本文为网易自媒体平台“网易号”作者上传并发布,仅代表该作者观点。网易仅提供信息发布平台。

跟贴 跟贴 2 参与 2
© 1997-2019 网易公司版权所有 About NetEase | 公司简介 | 联系方法 | 招聘信息 | 客户服务 | 隐私政策 | 广告服务 | 网站地图 | 意见反馈 | 不良信息举报

寻找遗失的文化

谈古鉴今,鉴古鉴己,以藏养藏

头像

寻找遗失的文化

谈古鉴今,鉴古鉴己,以藏养藏

55

篇文章

134

人关注

列表加载中...
请登录后再关注
x

用户登录

网易通行证/邮箱用户可以直接登录:
忘记密码