“宋官窑者绝不经见,世人罕能识之者”:宋官窑修内司款岀辑花觚

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  历代陶瓷精品以元、明、清官窑为主,宋瓷为佳,是宋代著名瓷窑。“官窑” 为宋代五大名窑之一,官窑瓷器虽然在宋代瓷器中只占极少数,但是由于其所处地位和具备的优越条件,使它在当时烧造了一批宫庭所需的高档瓷器,成为中华民族珍贵的文化遗产。

  官窑引入汝瓷及开封东窑等窑口窑系的制作精华,在东京汴梁,乃宋徽宗按照自己的设计、亲自指挥烧制和创制的巅峰之瓷,其不仅是我国陶瓷史上第一个由朝廷独资投建的“国有”窑口,也是第一个被皇帝个人垄断的瓷器种类。

  

  此瓷为“宋官窑岀辑花觚”,外形呈漏斗状,方口,外撇,造型优美,方口以下渐敛,施有青釉,釉层肥厚,釉面细润、光洁,有开片纹。釉质更趋淳厚、匀润,胎质细腻,温润古朴似玉,达到了肥若堆脂,抚之如缎似玉的艺术效果。官窑岀辑花觚主要为素面,既无华美的雕饰,又无艳彩涂绘,使用凹凸直棱和弦纹为饰。造型古朴庄重,釉质如脂如玉,所裂纹片灵动飘逸,形如龟背,色如鳝血,釉面莹莹冰片极富美感,且器口微微泛紫,底足褐红如铁。官瓷釉面的开片,得益于其独到的工艺,所开片纹极富节奏感,釉面开片本因釉与胎的收缩率不一致,形成一种釉裂胎不裂的现象,错落有致的开片,顺其自然,形成一种妙趣天成的装饰釉。整体晶莹剔透,开片流畅,纹如鳝血,产生出令人惊叹的纹裂美。釉面纹片粼粼,愈显高洁古雅。而窑口乃朝廷举国家之力投资的“国有”企业,其生产关系为:“朝廷置窑、内府制样、民匠造器、兵士供役”,所烧产品唯供朝廷使用,不在市场流通,罕珍和稀有,常人难以见到,更遑论什么民间收藏了。由此可见“官窑青釉花瓣”其珍贵,一如清代学者陈浏在其《陶雅》一书中所言:“宋官窑者绝不经见,世人罕能识之者。”

  

  【名称】:“大宋官窑修内司款岀辑花觚”

  【类别】:瓷器

  【年代】:宋

  【英文名】:Tianqing glaze vase with royal kiln of song dynasty

  

  

  官窑瓷器,官窑起自唐,有两种涵义,广义是指朝廷开设的窑场,狭义是北宋大观、政和年间,官府在汴京(今河南开封)开设的瓷窑场。官窑是中国古时五大瓷窑(钧窑、汝窑、官窑、哥窑、定窑)之一。

  In the broad sense, it refers to the kiln hall opened by the government. In the narrow sense, it refers to the porcelain kiln hall opened by the government in bianjing (today's kaifeng in henan province) during the grand view of the northern song dynasty and the political period. Guan kiln is one of the five ancient kilns (jun kiln, ru kiln, guan kiln, ge kiln, ding kiln).

  后世广意上官窑意指由中国历代政府营建,为其烧造瓷器的窑场,所生产的陶瓷供宫廷所用。因此除了有名的宋代官窑之外,亦有辽代官窑、明代官窑等。

  In later times, royal kilns were built by successive Chinese governments to make porcelain for them. Therefore, in addition to the famous song dynasty official kilns, there are liao dynasty official kilns, such as the Ming dynasty.

  官窑产品必须符合皇家的审美观,客观上就限制了陶瓷工匠的艺术发展,清乾隆之后,官窑产品也就逐渐没落了。采取的形式是“官监民烧”,烧出的瓷器,“千中选十、百中选一”,进贡给统治阶级。

  The royal kiln products must conform to the royal aesthetic standards, which objectively limited the development of the art of ceramic craftsmen. After the reign of emperor qianlong in the qing dynasty, the royal kiln products gradually declined. It took the form of "the burning of officials and the people", the burning of porcelain, "one out of a thousand, one out of a hundred", and presented tribute to the ruling class.

  

  相传北宋大观、政和年间,在汴京附近设立窑场,专烧宫廷用瓷器,即北宋官窑。南宋顾文荐《负杂录》记载:"宋宣政间(宣和、政和即公元1111-1125年)京师自置窑烧造,名曰'官窑'",南宋叶在其《垣斋笔衡》中对北京官窑亦有记载:"政和京师自置窑烧造,名曰'官窑'"。

  According to legend, in the northern song dynasty, the great view, politics and years, in the vicinity of bianjing set up a kiln, dedicated to the royal porcelain, namely the northern song dynasty royal kiln. In the book negative miscellaneous records, gu wenjian wrote: "in the period between xuanhe and zhenghe in the song dynasty (1111-1125 AD), the royal kilns were built by the royal masters of the song dynasty.

  当时的京师即汴京(今开封),因宋代汴京遗址已沉入地底,至今日为止,尚未发掘出北宋官窑遗址,对于北宋官窑遗址缺乏考古发掘地资料和充足的文献资料的支撑,因此,时至今日,关于北宋官窑遗址在何处,仍有不同说法,一般有三种说法:一说北宋官窑即为汝窑;二说否认北宋官窑的存在;三说为北宋官窑即为汴京官窑,它与南宋时的修内司官窑先后存在。

  Jingshi namely bian city (now kaifeng) at that time, because of the song dynasty bian city ruins sank to the ground, until today, has not yet been unearthed northern song dynasty guan kiln site, the lack of archaeological site of northern song dynasty guan kiln site data, and the support of abundant literature, therefore, today, where about the northern song dynasty guan kiln site, there are still different, generally there are three kinds of view: say the northern song official kiln is your kiln; The second theory denies the existence of official kilns in the northern song dynasty. Three said that the northern song dynasty, known as the bianjing royal kiln, it and the southern song dynasty xiuinsi official kiln successively existed.

  

  北宋官窑传世品很少,形质与工艺与汝窑有共同处。器多仿古,主要有碗、瓶、洗等。胎体显厚,胎骨深灰、紫色或黑色,釉色有淡青、粉青、月白等,釉质莹润温雅,尤以釉面开大裂纹片著称,不同于南宋官窑和汝窑及龙泉窑瓷器。底有文钉烧痕,有“紫口铁足”的特征。

  The royal kilns of the northern song dynasty were rarely handed down. Implement much archaize, basically have bowl, bottle, wash. The placenta is dark grey, purple or black, the glaze color has light green, pink green, white and so on, the glaze is crystal embellish elegant, especially with the glaze surface opening big crack piece is famous, different from the southern song dynasty official kiln and ru kiln and longquan porcelain. The bottom of the paper nail burn mark, "purple mouth iron foot" features.

  此器呈喇叭状撇口,长颈,中腹部短小,胫部下处外撇至圈足,圈足,圈足胎色呈“铁色”,口部有玉化痕迹。

  This device is horn - shaped skimmer, long neck, middle abdomen short, tibia part under the outward turn to circle foot, circle foot, circle foot color is "iron color", the mouth has jade traces.

  

  花觚口外撇,形如喇叭状,方颈,鼓形腰,胫部外撇,浅圈足。通体施天青釉,腰部饰凸乳钉。外底施白釉,底心凸岀四方块,方块上印篆书款“大宋官窑”。此件官窑花觚仿青铜器造型的一种陈设用瓷。

  Cornered cornered cornered, horn - shaped, thin neck, drum - shaped waist, tibia, shallower foot. Whole body apply tianqing glaze, waist decoration is convex breast nail. White glaze is applied on the outside, and there are four blocks with a protruding heart. This is a kind of furnishing porcelain used in the vase to imitate bronze ware.

  造型端庄古朴,器形秀逸挺拔,线条流畅,典雅迷人,品相保存良好,是一件难得的宋官窑珍品。

  Dignified and simple in shape, elegant and upright in shape, smooth in line, elegant and charming in appearance, is a rare treasure of song guan kiln.

  它具备很高的收藏价值。花觚按商周时期青铜器觚的器形仿造而来,应成对与烛台摆放于香炉两侧。

  It has a high collection value. The vase is modeled after the bronze gu of shang and zhou dynasties and should be placed on both sides of the censer with the candlestick.

  则合称五供。是古代摆放于祠堂,庙宇的香案之上。古代先人祭天奉祖,求神拜佛所用的礼器。其材质以铜,瓷,锡等较为常见。

  Then they are collectively called the five confessions. It was placed on ancestral temple and temple incense table in ancient times. Ancient ancestors worship god, worship god used by ritual vessels. Its material to copper, porcelain, tin, etc. is more common.

  

  

  以上是2017年11月22号拍出的一件宋代官窑花觚成交价1200万元人民币,由此可见宋代官窑瓷器的升值空间,以及市场投资价值。

  The above is a flower gu of guanyao in the song dynasty sold on November 22, 2017 for RMB 12 million, which shows the appreciation space of guanyao porcelain in the song dynasty and the market investment value.

  官窑是中國宋代五大瓷窑之一,其製作科技傳承於唐代秘色瓷和五代柴窑,在千峰翠色的基礎上新增了非常瑩潤的玉質感。作為統治階級的重要禮器和上層社會的賞玩之物,它冰青玉潔、色調淡雅、造型古樸,充分體現了宋代先人的聰明才智,成為中國瓷器發展史上的一個重要里程碑。宋代在中國歷史上是一個重要時期,其經濟飛速發展,生活極其富足,工業非常繁榮。朝廷主要收入逐步從農業轉向工商業了,農業社會逐步向工業社會邁進了。正向清明上河圖所描繪的那樣經濟繁榮,人民安居樂業。這是宋官窑瓷器產生的經濟基礎和社會背景。

  

  

  宋官窑瓷器品種非常豐富,按用途分為禮器、陳設器、日用器,其中禮器、陳設器占主要地位,因為宋朝時期每年都要舉行隆重的祭奠活動,祭天、祭地、祭先祖,這就需要大量的禮器。又因為當時青銅器逐步為瓷器所取代,所以從造型上明顯看出宋官窑瓷器中有很多造型古樸的仿青銅器型。官窑的制胎一般就近取土,胎色大多呈灰色、深灰色、深褐色,這是因為胎土中摻入含鐵量較高的紫金土所致。器口薄釉處和圈足露胎處顯出深褐色,正像古人所雲“紫口鐵足”。釉色有多種,有天青、粉青、灰青、米黃、月白、翠綠,北宋官窑中粉青、月白色較多。按古人的評估:“粉青為上,淺白(月白)次之,油灰(灰青)色色之下也”。釉面有大小開片,種類有牛毛紋、蟹爪紋、冰裂紋、魚鱗紋、魚子紋。古人評估:“取冰裂鱔血為上,梅花片黑紋次之,細碎紋紋之下也”。總之,宋代官窑瓷必須符合皇家的審美觀,它沒有精美的雕飾以嘩眾,也不靠豔彩塗繪以媚人,唯獨以古樸莊重的器型、瑩潤如玉的釉色、鱗鱗如波的紋片配合著紫口鐵足之美,堪稱宋代審美的代表。

  

  

  【官窑出戟花觚】

   此官窑花觚,敞口向天而向,即為‘上承天露’或‘秉承天道’之意。長頸,方腹,高圈足外撇。器體胎體厚重,形體碩大,造型古樸,典雅迷人,胎質細膩緻密,通體施青釉,釉汁肥厚,滋潤如玉,通體開片,裂紋層層疊疊清晰而現,觀之猶如堅冰炸裂,具有較强的立體之感,而以手感之,且又光潔平滑。其高雅素裝攝人眼目,獨具藝術魅力。因官窑瓷器屬於非商品性生產,產品少。其中精者選進宮,次者掩埋等處理,不許流入民間,歷代帝王尚且均將官窑瓷器視為珍寶,世代相傳,不作明器陪葬,足見其珍貴程度,故流傳下來且保存完好的官窑瓷器如此對官窑花觚就更為珍稀難得,具有極高的收藏價值。

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