哈佛营养学院教授:为什么你总是饿?怎么吃瘦得更快?

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  我已委托“维权骑士”为我的文章进行维权行动。

  本文编辑翻译时间(10个小时),预计阅读时间,15分钟

  =====================

  

  今天的主人公介绍:Dr. David Ludwig博士,『哈佛公共卫生学院』 营养学院的教授致力于食物对荷尔蒙,新陈代谢,和体重的影响研究,

  他的知名著作《总是饥饿?如何克服暴食欲望,重组你的脂肪细胞,永久减肥?》《always hungry ....》。

  我最近在Youtube看到一个视频,是david博士一个公开讲座,里面都是最新都减肥知识,和一些研究对照分析,有很多值得大家学习,借鉴的减肥知识,我看完收获都很大,所以我给大家搬运过来了。

  因为时间关系,我真的没有时间去做全文翻译,做字幕,完成这个可能需要一个星期的时间,所以我就摘录了一些重点,这也耗费了好几天所有的空余时间。

  如果你可以看懂英文,我还是希望你去看看这个完整的视频,你可以接收到更多的信息,不只是我这些精简的文字。

  https://v.qq.com/x/page/f03865wogy2.html

  看完这个视频你可以有如下收获:

  

1,你问什么总是戒不掉某些食品?
2,怎么吃才会让你瘦得更快?
3,如何减肥更加稳定,不反弹?

  下面的文字,是我摘抄的一些精华部分和翻译,咱们开始吧,中英文对照的,看着挺长,其实内容也不是很多。照例谦虚一下,因为时间和水平有限,有翻译不是很到位的地方,请提出批评指正。

  

  一般人对肥胖和减肥的理解就是,卡路里平衡理论,卡路里进,卡路里出(CICO)

  0:42 First law of thermodynamics and calories in vs calories out (CICO), i.e., the conventional understanding of obesity

  解决肥胖问题的传统办法就是,少吃多运动,如果你做不到,就是你的毛病。

  2:09 The simple (conventional) solution to obesity is to eat less and move more.

  如果这个传统的解决肥胖问题的理论是正确的,那么低脂饮食应该是效果最好的。

  3:07 If the conventional solution to obesity is correct, then the low-fat diet will be your best friend.

  我们摄入的脂肪越来越少,但是肥胖问题越来越严重

  4:06 But fat calories decreased as the obesity epidemic exploded.

  妇女健康领头(WHI)正在做一个低脂饮食的研究,这是最大规模的低脂饮食研究,好像还没有做完,可能做不下去了。

  4:35 Womens Health Initiative (WHI), the largest low-fat diet study ever done, or ever likely to be done, was an absolute bust.

  很多针对多个研究的元分析表明,低碳高脂饮食都比低脂饮食减肥效果好,这些研究让更多的人认识到,“营养学的主要方向,低脂饮食,已经给公众造成了很多健康危害。”

  5:35 Multiple meta-analyses show subjects on high-fat diets consistently lose weight better than those on low-fat diets. This raises the possibility that the mainstream’s “primary approach to nutrition, the low-fat diet, has caused major public health harm.”

  全国健康营养检查(NHANES)调查研究发现,6个胖子中,只有一个人在一年之内,成功减肥10%以上,为什么?。

  6:28 NHANES shows that only one in six overweight people have ever lost more than 10 percent of their body weight and kept it off for over one year.

  我必须问这个问题,为什么卡路里平衡理论没卵用了?

  7:00 We have to ask, Why has the simple CICO system of weight loss been such an abject failure?

  回答:长远来说,减肥不是一个意志力问题,而说一个非常复杂的生物学的问题。瘦龙:这句话,我不知道说过多少次了,应该可以绕地球好几圈了,但是大多数人都觉得,减肥失败是意志力的问题。

  7:47 Answer: Body weight is controlled more by biology than will power over the long term.

  饥饿感是我们接收到的最主要信号,我们的大脑是无法忽略它滴,如果你想忽略他, 压抑他,它会通过各种其他方式反击你。太对了

  8:35 Hunger is a primal biological signal that is very difficult to ignore. If you are able to ignore it or suppress it, your body fights back in other ways.

  有一些专门针对『过度饮食』的研究发现,受试者长胖了,但是失去了对食物的兴趣,结果非常痛苦,和那些尝试节食的受试者一样,当研究结束后,他们的体重很快就降回到原始体重。

  8:57 Nice discussion of what happens during overfeeding studies. Subjects gain weight, but lose interest in food and end up being as miserable as those on starvation diets. When the study is over, their weight drops back down to what it was at the start.

  从这些『节食』和『强制进食』的研究中看,我们的体重有一个定点,但是如果有这些体重定点的存在,为什么我们的平均体重会在这几十年之内飙升呢?在美国,在40年之内,我们现在的平均体重飙升了35磅,为什么?我们能做点什么?

  9:42 Results from these low-calorie and force feeding studies imply a body-weight set point that we defend. But if such a set point exists, why has it gone up year after year for the past 30-40 years? In the US, we’re defending a body weight that is 35 pounds higher than in was in the 1970s. Why? What can we do about it?

  下面开始讲我这个非传统的肥胖理论,如果你还不知道这是一个什么样的新理论,我们先花几分钟时间,简单讨论一下。

  10:42 Begins a nice discussion of the alternative theory of obesity. If you’re unsure what the alternative theory is, this is a short incisive discussion that takes just a couple of minutes.

  按照我这个非传统的理论,利用少吃多动来减肥,只是针对症状,而不是针对原因,长远来说,注定要失败。瘦龙:这句话也不知道说了多少次了,david博士和我的见解竟然是一样一样滴。

  12:10 From the perspective of the alternative theory, eat less, move more is simply a symptomatic treatment, doomed to failure in the long run.

  什么导致脂肪的形成,胰岛素,胰岛素促成脂肪的形成,其作用过程就像一个奇迹一样,但是这是你不愿意看到的奇迹。

  12:30What causes the fat gain? Insulin. Insulin is the Miracle Grow for your fat cells, which is notthe miracle you want happening in your body.

  有关升糖指数,如果你摄入碳水慢一点,就更像你摄入低碳水一样,不太会导致代谢破坏,也可以很好的消化碳水。

  13:17The glycemic index,the more slowly absorbing carbs act more like low-carb foods and don’t create nearly the metabolic havoc that easily digestible carbs do.

  

  (David Ludwig博士)

  青少年肥胖相关的研究

  首先,说一个和青少年肥胖相关的研究,给出三种不同的早餐:

  

第一组,速冲全麦燕麦片
第二组,燕麦碎粒(非速冲的)
第三组,蔬菜蛋卷

  第一二组早餐含有的蛋白质脂肪碳水一样,卡路里一样,区别就是碳水吸收的速度不一样,第三种早餐基本上是没有碳水的。

  14:10Begins description of study on obese adolescents given one of three different meals for breakfast. One meal is instant oatmeal made of whole grains prepared in Dr. Ludwig’s lab. Steel cut oats made up the second meal. And the third meal was a vegetable omelette. The first two meals both contained the same amount of protein, fat and carbs and the same number of calories. The only difference was the variation in the speed of absorption of the carbs. The third meal had no almost no carbs, so it served as the control.

  第一组摄入后,胰岛素和血糖上升很快,在两顿燕麦之后,脂肪酸(你的主要能量来源)被压制,而且在那个吸收更好的一组中被压制得更加厉害,让脂肪被困在脂肪细胞中,无法消耗掉。

  15:20Insulin and glucose rises faster and higher after the instant oatmeal meal. Blood sugar crashes after the instant oatmeal meal. And the fatty acids (your real main fuel) are suppressed after the two oatmeal meals, but stay suppressed longer after the highly absorbable one, giving credence to the idea that the fat stays trapped in the fat cells.

  速冲麦片摄入后,肾上腺素上升了

  16:33 Adrenaline (an emergency stress hormone) surged after the instant oatmeal meal.

  结果,吃完早餐后,所有的受试者都可以随意进食了,那个吃了吸收良好的速冲燕麦的组,摄入的卡路里数量比其他组摄入多了600-700卡路里

  17:10 After the breakfast meal, when all the subjects were given free access to food, those who had eaten the highly absorbable instant oatmeal ate 600kcal-700kcal more than the other subjects.

  那么,当脂肪酸和葡糖糖下降,肾上腺上升时,我们的大脑都发生了什么?我们来看第二个研究,受试者分成两组:

  

第一组,摄入可以快速消化的玉米糖浆
第二组,摄入需要慢慢消化的,没有烹饪过的玉米面。
这两种奶昔都有同样的卡路里,同样的营养物质,口感也几乎完全一样。

  17:28 What happens in the brain when fatty acids and glucose fall while adrenaline rises? Let’s look at another study in which subjects got one of two milkshakes, one of which was sweetened with quickly digested corn syrup while the other was made with slowly digested, uncooked corn starch. Both shakes had the same number of calories, the same fat/protein content and the same sweetness. From a taste standpoint, they were identical.

  血糖水平上升效果一样,肾上腺素和之前一样,随着血糖的降低而降低

  。

  18:20 Saw the same surge of blood sugar, insulin, and adrenaline, followed by a crash in blood sugar as before.

  但是通过大脑扫描,看出来一部分区域是亮的,和可卡因,海洛因,酒精,香烟,刺激后的区域类似,也就是说,这些食物可能会引起上瘾,这是我发现的非常有意思的地方,我之前从来没有想过。

  18:38 Brain scans showed the same areas lighting up as do so with cocaine, heroin, alcohol, tobacco, etc. Which gives rise to the notion that certain foods may trigger a process akin to addiction. Here is the part I found interesting and that I hadn’t really considered.

  大脑中扫描,上瘾区出现的亮点,不是因为食物的味道本身,因为不同的玉米奶昔测试结果是一样的,这些亮点出现的原因,是因为他们的生物效应。

  The lighting up of the brain didn’t come because of taste, because both milkshakes tasted the same. The changes came via their biological effects.

  “难道风味不是食物固有的特点?” 我从来没有这么思考过,但是确实是真的,如果你吃完感恩节的晚宴,然后躺着昏睡,进食过程是如此的美妙,让你几乎忘记了自己就在进食,其实食物都是类似的,不同的是你所有基于生理的知觉,所谓的风味是一种心理上的反馈,而不是来自于食物本身。

  瘦龙:开了个脑洞,这个原理解释了,很多时候我们随便吃点什么都很开心,因为和自己的爱人在一起,还有的时候吃5星级饭店的山珍海味都觉得不好吃,因为你对面坐的人,你不喜欢。

  19:32 “Palatability isn’t an inherent aspect of food.” I had never really thought of this or about this, but it’s true. After you’ve stuffed yourself with Thanksgiving dinner and are lying in a stupor, the stuffing that seemed so good when you ate it almost revolts you to even think about eating. Yet the stuffing is the same. It’s your perception of it that has changed based on your own physiology. “Palatability is an internal psychological response; it’s not something internal to food.”

  一个有关老鼠的研究

  在分享一个有关啮齿类的动物(老鼠)的研究,两组老鼠分入不同的饮食组:

  1,慢速消化的碳水(快速组)

  2,快速消化的碳水(慢速组)

  16周内(对老鼠来说大约是10年),研究者尽量让老鼠的卡路里摄入一致,保持他们的体重一致。

  有意思的是,为了保持两组的体重相同,研究者必须严格控制『快速组』的卡路里消耗量,否则他们会吃更多,快速组的老鼠新陈代谢降低了,为了防止他们变胖,必须严格控制他们的卡路里

  20:45 Interesting rodent study. Two groups of rats went on two diets – one made of slowly digested carbs and one of quickly digested carbs – for 16 weeks (about ten rat years). The researchers fiddled with the caloric intake in an effort to keep the rats all weighing the same for the duration of the study. Interestingly, they had to restrict the caloric intake of the rats on the quickly digested carb diet in order to keep them at the same weight as their mates on the slowly digested carb diet. The metabolic rate of the rats eating the quickly digested carbs had slowed to the point that their caloric intake had to be restricted to prevent their becoming obese.

  研究结束后,两组老鼠的体重保持一致,但是快速组和慢速组老鼠的体重相比,快速组多了70%的脂肪。

  还记得吗?这还是在卡路里摄入不足的情况下,这就无法用卡路里进,卡路里出的理论来解释来,我们很清楚,他们是老鼠,不是人类。

  但是也足以给我们人类敲响警钟,当你在吃可以快速消耗的精炼碳水(米,面,糖)的时候,你的身体会做出什么反应。

  21:55 At the end of the study, the rats in both groups weighed the same, but the rats on the quickly digested carb diet sported 70 percent more body fat than the others. Remember, that’s on a lower number of calories, which can’t be explained by the CICO model of obesity. I know these are rodents and not humans, but this should be a cautionary tale about what happens when you eat a lot of easily digestible carbs.

  另一个有关人类的研究

  另外一个有关人类的研究得出了类似的结论,21个肥胖年轻受试者,让他们严格控制卡路里,减掉体重的10-15%,然后把他们编入三个饮食组:

  低脂低卡组,低碳高脂组,地中海饮食。

  23:00 A human study showed similar effects. Took 21 obese young adults and put them on a restricted diet till they lost 10-15 percent of their body weight, then put them on one of three diets: a low-fat, low-kcal diet; a low-carb, high-fat diet; or a Mediterranean diet.

  在一开始的减肥饮食中,他们每天消耗3200卡,他们减掉10-15%的体重后,

  第一组,他们开始低脂饮食(低卡高GI)时,为了保持体重不反弹,他们的卡路里摄入量必须减少400卡。

  第二组,他们在执行低碳高脂肪饮食时,他们的卡路里只需降低一丢丢,完全不需要降低400卡。而第三组地中海饮食在他们之间。

  Before the first weight loss diet, they were burning 3200 kcal/day. After they lost 10-15 percent of their body weight, when they went on the higher glycemic low-fat, low-kcal maintenance diet, their caloric intake had to be reduced by almost 400 kcal to maintain the lower weight.

  In contrast, when they maintained on the low-carb, high-fat diet, their calories had to be decreased a bit, but not nearly as much as those on the low-fat diet. The Mediterranean diet was kind of in the middle.

  我们生活中,听到很多人说,什么样的饮食法不重要,只要你摄入少了,你就会减肥,吃什么无所谓,你只需要坚持少吃就行。

  

  24:45 We’ve all heard countless people say that it doesn’t matter what diet you go on, as long as you cut calories, you’ll lose weight. The composition of the diet doesn’t matter; you’ve just got to stick with it.

  这个古老的观念来自于,一个叫做减磅(pounds lost)的研究,他们找了800位肥胖者(作为一个减肥研究,数量很庞大),这个研究在两个学术研究中心进行了将近2年,受试者被编入四个不同的饮食组,过程中几乎不提供任何咨询建议,然后最后发现,很多人减肥效果都一样,就得出结论说,无论你吃什么都不重要。

  25:07 This notion comes from the POUNDS LOST study, which looked at 800 people (a lot for a weight loss study) studied for two years in two different academic centers. The subjects went on one of four different diets of varying compositions. Dietitians gave written instructions on how to carry out the diet and provided minimal counseling. At the end, all groups lost about the same amount of weight, confirming the notion that it doesn’t really matter what kind of diet you go on.

  上面的研究和得出的结论明显是错误的,这个研究根本就没有达到本来的研究目的,没有找出不同饮食法的营养区别,没有全程监控。

  26:23 The above is a false conclusion. The study failed to achieve anywhere near its targeted nutrient differences.

  当你从生物学的角度来衡量的话,他们都是一样的,所以,最后的结果是,他们的饮食方式没有多大区别,拿脚都可以想象,他们的减肥效果是一样的

  27:18 When you look at the actual bio-measurements, they all look the same, so it’s pretty clear that they were all on more or less the same diet, so you would expect the same outcome.

  

  (David Ludwig博士)

  一个以色列工厂的研究

  与之相对的,还有一个来自以色列电力工厂,更加直接的研究,工人都来自工厂,每天都来上班,公司提供午餐,研究者给出了3份食谱,低碳,低脂,中间的地中海饮食。

  早晚餐都是工人自己安排,只是控制午餐,这个研究进行了两年。

  27:40 Compare with the Direct study done in a power plant in Israel. Workers came to the plant, stayed all day, and the company provided lunch. Researchers designed three lunches: low-carb, low-fat, and an in-between Mediterranean-style diet.

  The workers ate whatever they wanted at home before they came to work and after. The only meal that was controlled was lunch. The study lasted two years.

  结果呢?

  1,低碳饮食组,快速持久的减肥效果。

  2,地中海饮食组,慢速的减肥,但是长远效果还不错,和低碳差不多。

  3,低脂组,减肥效果和前面两组相差甚远。

  记住,这只是改变一天中的一餐的饮食方式。

  瘦龙:这个研究对我的一些启发,如果有些人做不到完全低碳,你可以尝试从1天1-2顿低碳开始,让自己慢慢的去适应低碳,可能效果也不错,比如说早上不吃包子油条,就吃鸡蛋,豆浆,菜等等,可能速度慢一点,但是也会有一些效果的。

  28:22 Results? Rapid, sustained weight loss in those following the low-carb diet. Slower weight loss with the Mediterranean diet that ultimately caught up with the low-carb diet. The low-fat diet didn’t come close to the success of the other two. And remember, this was just by changing one meal per day.

  我的减肥理论是酱紫的,快速消化的精炼碳水,让胰岛素骤升骤降,让脂肪细胞进入疯狂摄入的模式,结果不仅仅是我们马上就饿了,而是我们在刺激我们的脑部的上瘾中心,让我们更加离不开这些深度加工的食品。

  我们从上述的几个研究都可以看出,摄入这些高碳水化合物后,身体的反应过程,会让我们吃得更多,消耗更少。

  29:05 The alternative theory says that consumption of easily digestible, highly processed carbs drives insulin up and sends the fat cells into a feeding frenzy. The results are that not only do we become more hungry, but we are stimulating the addiction centers in the brain, making these highly processed foods even more desirable for us. And as we’ve seen from the studies described above, this process drives food intake and lowers energy expenditure.

  提高食物的质量,摄入正确是食物,长期来说,你根本就不需要像节食那样辛苦,而且成功率要高很多。

  30:15 Improving diet quality may be less arduous and more successful than calorie restriction over the long term.

  分享完了,我不知道你看完有什么感受,我反正看完视频真的学到不少东西。

  Important 瘦龙说:

  看完这个视频,我是有很多收获的。

  对于很多无法践行生酮,无法超级低碳的饮食者,你们可以先去掉精炼碳水(米面),可以吃一些粗粮,全麦。

  或者你可以一天中吃一次碳水,其他两顿都不摄入任何碳水,长远来说,可能对你来说也有一些效果。

  有关暴食的原因,文中的一个理论,不是食物本身的风味吸引你,而是有些食物都消化过程会影响你都身体激素,给你大脑的信号,让你上瘾,或者过分压抑,导致不正常的心理作用,吸引去暴食,放不下某些食物。

  所以,你需要慢慢去改善饮食结构,重视自己的心里建设,去解决暴食问题。

  试想一下,为什么你总是戒不掉米面糖等精炼碳水,是因为他们很美味吗?当然不是,这些东西本来就嚼之无味,一点都不好吃,而我们中很多人都戒不掉,就是因为这些食物在身体的消化过程中,对激素的影响,对大脑的影响,让我们不断的想暴食。

  想解决进食障碍问题,先慢慢减少这些精炼的米面,如果实在忍不住要吃,也好好吃,尝试正念饮食,不要快速吃,吃太快会加速上瘾。

  我在网上大概看了david教授的书,『你总是饥饿?always hungry?』的简介,一直在强调了这个理论:

  不是因为吃多而变胖,而是因为你摄入了不正确的食物(高升糖指数,高碳水的食物),然后导致储存脂肪。

  也就是这个过程会影响了身体激素的分泌,刺激你的大脑神经,让你对高热量的食物上瘾,然后你吃得越来越多。

  有关david博士的书,always hungry,我以后会专门写一篇介绍。

  

  (叨叨完了,是不是又说多了?)

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低碳生酮饮食减肥,健康科普

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低碳生酮饮食减肥,健康科普

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